Type IV composite pressure vessels for hydrogen applications

Hydrogen storage:

Hydrogen is not an energy source, but an energy carrier that can be used to store and transport energy. The storage of hydrogen as a fuel (e.g. for motor vehicles) places high demands on the design of hydrogen pressure vessels. These demands are driven on the one hand by safety considerations (e.g. in crash scenarios) and on the other hand by economic factors.


General structure of a type IV hydrogen pressure vessel 

  • Polymer liner: The thermoplastic inner liner serves as gas-tight storage. Good barrier properties should be considered when selecting materials.
  • Composite: The composite material is the structural part of the composite pressure vessel and is used to bear the load.
  • Boss: The metal boss is the connection point between the liner and the filling valve.
  • Dome protection: The dome protection is used to protect the carbon fiber against external damage.


The following points are particularly important in the manufacture of composite pressure vessels and must be addressed during the planning/development phase:

  • Field of application (car, truck, bus, gas transport, etc.)
  • Vessel dimensions and how it is installed
  • Materials (liner, fiber, resin, boss, valve, seal)
  • Liner manufacturing process (blow molding, injection molding, rotomolding)
  • Patents
  • Pressure (working pressure, test pressure, burst pressure)
  • Vessel contour design to minimize expansion under thermal and pressure loads
  • Composite material designs taking into account testing requirements
  • Certification and approval of the vessels (applicable standards and regulations)
  • Design suitable for production
  • Interaction between all components (liner, boss, valve, resin, fiber)


 Our range of services

We specialize in the execution of composite pressure vessel projects and offer our customers everything they need in one place, from the development of the pressure vessel to their own series production.

  • Feasibility study for composite pressure vessel projects
  • Technological consultation for pressure vessel production
  • Cost analysis for raw materials, manufacturing costs and production equipment
  • Development and construction of type IV composite pressure vessels, consisting of: thermoplastic liner, composite, boss, valve, seal
  • Finite element analysis of the whole composite pressure vessel (inner liner, composite, boss) to simulate its response under static and dynamic pressure loading
  • Manufacturing simulation
  • Assembly of a prototype of the entire composite pressure vessel
  • Testing of composite pressure vessels in accordance with applicable norms and ISO standards
  • Supervision of the certification process
  • Preparation of a manufacturing concept that is individually tailored to the customer with all necessary production and testing equipment
  • 2D/3D production line layout planning
  • Creation of technical specifications / requirements
  • Supplier management (support during the selection of suitable suppliers)
  • Support during construction and commissioning of the production line, item optimization
  • Project management
  • Documentation during the entire development cycle and project process
  • Development of transport solutions for hydrogen (e.g. transport modules)


Throughout the entire product development cycle, we place particular emphasis on close coordination with our customers. Our goal is to always develop the best solution and an outstanding product for the customer. We are always open to exploring new approaches with our customers so that we can continue to develop as a company.

How do we work?

In addition to the ECS engineering team, we have a vast worldwide network of partners and suppliers with whom we have worked professionally and successfully for many years. We work independently of manufacturers and can therefore always offer the optimal solution for the customer.